No Two-State Solution in the Bible

What the Palestinian Leadership Really Wants

two state solution

Fig.1: Tiny Israel is surrounded by large Arab-Muslim states. Image: Edgar Davidson

Figure 1 shows tiny Israel (yellow) and her generally hostile Arab-Muslim neighbours: there are 22 Arab states and just one Jewish state. Israel is only the size of Wales, but her neighbours still want her land! Initially, the Palestinians want a two state solution, but long-term a recent survey showed that they want just one state – a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital, link. The militant Arab leadership aims to form an Islamic caliphate covering all of Israel – including all of Jerusalem! To quote:


The capital of the Caliphate – the capital of the United States of the Arabs – will be Jerusalem [Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, 2012]

What the God of Israel Really Wants

What does the most important authority in the world say? Bible prophecy warns specifically against a two state solution. The God of Israel warns against dividing His land (yes – Israel is His land). Referring to the end of this age (very soon on the prophetic timescale) the God of Israel says:

I will gather together all the [Gentile] nations [that were hostile to My people] and bring them down into the Valley of Jehoshaphat (meaning ‘the Lord has judged’). There I will deal with them and enter into judgment with them there for [their treatment of] My people, My inheritance, Israel, whom they have scattered among the nations, and [because] they have encroached on My land and divided it up. (Joel 3v2 amplified, emphasis added)

Please bear this biblical warning in mind as you read what the world thinks.

Background to the so-called Two-State Solution

The 1947 Two-State Plan

two state solution

Fig 2: The 1947 UN Partition Plan (not implemented) Enlarge

Historically there have been several attempts at a two state solution to the Arab-Israeli problem, notably the Peel and Woodhead Commissions 1937/38, and the 1947 UN Partition Plan for Palestine (UN Resolution GA 181). In the 1947 plan, Palestine was to be divided equally, with open borders, into an Arab state and a Jewish state, Fig.2. The Plan was accepted by the Jews but rejected by the Arabs! Today Hamas still refuses to recognize the State of Israel, link, link, and so further two state proposals seem academic.

Hard Fact 1: There never was a “Palestinian People”

By the early 20th century the land we now call Palestine-Israel was a mix of many peoples representing some 50 languages [1911 Encyclopedia Britannica]. These communities were ‘ethnologically a chaos of all the possible human combinations’, and so did not share a common Arab identity. For instance, they included Balkans, Greeks, Syrians, Egyptians, Turks, Armenians, Italians, Persians, Kurds, Germans, Afghans, Bosnians, Sudanese, Algerians and others, link. So it is not surprising that, historically, there is no language known as Palestinian, or any Palestinian culture distinct from that of all the Arabs in the area, link:

There is no authoritative text on Palestinian history [Eyen Edward Said, graduate of Harvard & Princeton, former member of the Palestine National Council]

By 1917 there were 690,000 Arabs (Christian and Muslim) and 59,000 Jews in Palestine, link, but still no identifiable ‘Palestinian People’. Even the 1922 British Mandate for Palestine didn’t recognize the existence of a ‘Palestinian people’ since they were not an ethnic group. Instead the Mandate referred to the local Arab population as “existing non-Jewish communities”. It is only when Israel started to blossom mid 20th century that we see a ‘Palestinian People’ emerge. Nur Masalha, a Palestinian academic, admits that is was the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 which brought about “the crystallisation of a distinct and resistance Palestinian identity“.

Hard Fact 2: There never was a “Palestinian Land”

Is ‘Palestine’ a historic land? Is it legitimate to use the term ‘Palestine’ for the area we now call Israel? Where did the term come from?

To answer this we first observe that the Hebrews entered the Land of Israel, specifically Canaan, under Joshua c1450 BC (Jos 6). This area was gradually extended by Israel’s kings (Saul, David and Solomon) but still excluded ‘Philistia’ (the land of the Philistines), a narrow coastal strip including Gaza. The Philistines were an Aegean people more closely related to Greeks than to Arabs. Linguistically, the term ‘Palestine’ originated from the Greek word pronounced Palaistina, which is derived from the Hebrew word pronounced pel-eh-sheth, meaning ‘land of the Philistines’. Historically then, the term ‘Palestine’ only applied to the narrow coastal strip of land occupied by the Philistines, and Philistia itself did not survive the invasion of Nebuchadnezzar II c600 BC.

However, that was not the end of the matter and this land definition of Palestine was later expanded by the Romans. In the 2nd century AD, the Romans renamed Judea as ‘Palaestina’ in an attempt, some say, to minimize Jewish identification with the land of Israel. In fact, it is claimed that the Roman Emperor Hadrian began using the term ‘Palestine’ for the whole Land of Israel, and unfortunately this term has prevailed over the centuries. For example, under the Ottoman Empire (1517-1917), the term ‘Palestine’ was used as a general term to describe the land south of Syria, and it was applied to the territory placed under the 1922 British Mandate. But according to historian Professor Bernard Lewis, even at the start of the 20th century, “the land was not a country and had no frontiers, only administrative boundaries”, link.

So since there was no historic “Land of Palestine” there can be no legitimate Arab claim to such a land spanning large parts of modern Israel. Even Arab leaders themselves have admitted to this in the past:

There is no such country as Palestine
[Arab leader A.B. Abdul Hadi, 1937]
There is no such thing as Palestine in history, absolutely not
[Arab Prof Philip Hitti (Princeton University), 1946]
Palestine does not exist at all
[Ahmed Shkari (PLO founder), 1956]

Hard Fact 3: There is no “State of Palestine”

International recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine on 15 November 1988. The declaration was promptly acknowledged by a range of countries, and as of August 2018, 137 of the 193 United Nations member states and two non-member states had recognized it. Britain would recognise the state of Palestine under a Labour government – a major shift in long-standing British foreign policy in the Middle East.

The fact is, as of August 2018 there was no such thing as a ‘Palestinian State’. Palestine was not a state:

It’s not a state now. It does not meet the customary international law test of statehood. It doesn’t control defined boundaries. It doesn’t fulfill normal functions of government. There are a whole host of reasons why it’s not a state. [John Bolton, US National Security Adviser, October 2018]

Bolton said it is a “so-called state”. He said to become a state requires diplomatic negotiations with Israel and others. More at Legal Status.

Today’s ‘Palestinians’

In the face of this strong historical record, some still make the case for the existence of an amorphous Palestinian territory with an identifiable population existing before the emergence of political Zionism around 1890, link. On the other hand, as discussed, history shows that there was no distinctive Palestinian people at the start of the 20th century. It was only really after WWI that we find an emergence of Palestinian nationalism and an identifiable ‘Palestinian People’. Some see this as a response to the threat posed by Zionism, when waves of Jewish immigrants arrived in Palestine between 1919 and 1939. It is interesting to note that, by 1948, a substantial portion of the ‘Palestinian People’ resident in Palestine Mandate territory originated, not from that territory, but rather from the surrounding Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Egypt! It is claimed they came for the jobs provided by newly established Zionist industry and agriculture.

The World Wants a Two-State Solution

As discussed, there is no legal State of Palestine (and probably never will be, link). At best it is a “so-called state”. Nevertheless, the Western world assumes a State of Palestine and presses on for a two state solution for resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. That is the position of the US, the UN, the EU, Russia and (officially at least) the PA, link. For example:

The two-state solution is the only way to achieve a just and lasting peace between Israelis and Palestinians. It is the only way to ensure Israel’s future as a Jewish and democratic state, living in peace and security with its neighbours [John Kerry, Dec 2016]
The only way to end the conflict is through a two state solution negotiated between the parties [Maja Kocijancic, EU spokeswoman, Dec 2016]
The two-State solution: (is) a key prerequisite for achieving peace and stability in the Middle East [Theme of UN international meeting, July 2015]
The Zionist dream embraces the concept of Israel as a Jewish democracy … That dream can only be upheld by two states living side by side in security [John Kerry, UN HQ, November 2015]
A two-state solution is the only way for the long-term security of Israel, if it wants to stay both a Jewish state and democratic [Barack Obama, October 2015, link]

As of 2017, Israel backed both horses by playing the two state game whilst building settlements in the West Bank, link.

In 2012, UN General Assembly Resolution 67/19 upgraded Palestine to ‘non-member observer state’ status in the UN (like the Pope), link, link. In effect, this officially recognized a future Palestinian State. But, legally, it is internationally recognized that the UN General Assembly can only recommend the establishment of a Palestinian State (as Resolution 181 recommended the establishment of the Jewish State in 1947). It is up to States themselves to first assert state-like-control over their territory and affairs, and then to declare a state. So GA resolution 67/19 was not legally binding and was merely symbolic in effect, link.

So how can a people legally declare their own state (in that it achieves international legal recognition, as in the State of Israel)? According to the 1933 Montevideo Convention the state must have, link:

  • a permanent population
  • a defined territory
  • an effective government
  • a capacity to enter into relations with other States

As discussed, today’s Palestinians fall down in terms of a defined population and defined territory. Regarding the third point, there is clearly an absence of a credible and coherent Palestinian leadership viz. the Hamas-ruled Gaza Strip and the Fatah-dominated PA in the West Bank. And how can the PA enter into relations with the State of Israel when it does not even recognize Israel as a Jewish State (see below)?

Politically, Two States are Unlikely

A two state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian problem was proposed by the UN in 1947 (Fig.2) but it was rejected by the Arab leadership. Today, a two state solution is still under discussion, but again it is unlikely to succeed given the Arab position. For example, in 2011 the Palestinian leadership said, link:

We will never accept a Palestinian state without Jerusalem as its capital

To date, the Palestinian Authority maintains the following position:

  • It does not recognize Israel as a Jewish State
  • It maintains that Gaza, East Jerusalem and the West Bank are Palestinian Territories
  • It maintains that East Jerusalem is the capital of the future Palestinian State
  • It maintains that no Israeli should be living in Palestine

Since all four of these positions are currently totally unacceptable to the Israeli leadership, then any unilateral declaration by the PA would violate the 1995 Oslo II Interim Agreement (signed by the Palestinians at the White House). Article 31(7) of this Agreement states:

Neither side shall initiate or take any step that will change the status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip pending the outcome of the permanent status negotiations

This Accord is still binding, but is being flouted by the PA, the EU and the UN. So any PA attempt to change the status of these territories, namely a two state solution without prior negotiations with Israel will violate this clause. Article 31 expressly prohibits unilateral action by either side to change the status of the West Bank and Gaza prior to reaching a negotiated permanent status agreement.

Biblically, Two States may happen anyway – albeit for a Brief Period

A hint to this occurs in several end time Bible prophecies:

  • Daniel 9.27: A (bad) covenant is made with Israel. A covenant of false peace lasts just 3.5 years
  • Zechariah 14.2: Part of Jerusalem is captured and half the city goes into exile
  • Joel 3.2: God specifically says that the land will be divided

The fact that Jerusalem appears to be split into two at the very end of this age implies a two-state solution, albeit very brief until Jesus returns. Currently, some in the Arab leadership claim that East Jerusalem should be the capital of a Palestinian state, link.

We note that those Israeli leaders who have tried to divide the land in exchange for peace (Yitzhak Rabin, Ariel Sharon) have had an untimely end, link. Pray that the current leadership refrains from trading land for peace.

Support for a One-State Solution

In 2017, Sheikh Abu Khalil Al-Tamimi of Hebron, the spiritual leader of the Islamic fundamentalist Salafist sect in the Palestinian territories said:

A two state solution does not make any sense. We want to live under Israeli democracy as equal citizens in Palestine. A one state solution is the only chance for peace for both peoples … the vast majority want to live in a state with the Jews under democratic rule. Believe me, many Palestinians will tell you that life in Israel is much better than in the autonomous areas or in the Arab countries.

When it comes to Jerusalem, Palestinians overwhelmingly repudiate the idea of East Jerusalem becoming the capital of their state and incorporating its Arab neighborhoods, including most of the Old City, link.

Jerusalem’s Arab population prefers Israeli sovereignty to the prospect of living under Palestinian Authority rule, Khaled Abu Toameh

In support of this, at the 2017 4th Annual Sovereignty Conference in Jerusalem, link, Arabs criticized the Palestinian Authority for corrupt practice and layed out a vision of successful Arab life under Israeli sovereignty. When it comes to Israel, two polls by leading Israeli pollsters show that Israelis overwhelmingly oppose the establishment of a Palestinian Arab state; 10 to 1 oppose a Palestinian Arab State and favor Israel Sovereignty, link.

Resolving the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Yes – Palestinians are Suffering

The video is shocking isn’t it? Palestinians and their families are indeed suffering. Since 2000, it is claimed that Israeli soldiers have killed more than 1,400 Palestinian children, link. Israel has imposed severe restriction on Palestinian movement. Many Palestinians have suffered multiple forced displacements, having lost their homes and livelihoods more than once – typical months see over 60 Palestinian homes and other structures demolished (including wells). To help combat this, Israelis, Palestinians and international volunteers work with the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions, ICAHD, to rebuild Palestinian homes demolished by Israel.

Most sectors of the economy are in decline and 80% of factories are shut in Gaza, link. Since the conflict is mainly over loss of land, link, Palestinian agriculture suffers from numerous problems, including blockades to exportation of produce and confiscation and destruction of wells. Palestinian farmers in the Jordan Valley face restrictions, on access to water and electricity networks, link. Many Palestinians are living below the poverty line (nearly 1 in 5 in the West Bank and 2 out if 5 in Gaza Strip, link, and over 50% of young graduates are unemployed, link. On the other hand, due to added benefits, it is claimed that Palestinians are quick to leave their Palestinian employees and work for Israelis, link.

Is all this suffering because of a militant Arab leadership?
Is the Arab leadership failing the Palestinians, link? Please read on.

No real Political Solution

What seems to be a reasonable pre-condition to peace talks is Palestinian recognition of the Jewish state:

The Palestinians must abandon their refusal to recognise the right of the Jewish people to their national state [Benjamin Netanyahu]

But, as discussed, the Palestinian leadership refuses to comply with this request. The only real and lasting solution to the conflict is to be found in the Bible.

The Biblical Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

The God of Israel is expressly against a two state solution and those who attempt such a division of the land should note God’s warning:

I will enter into judgement with them … on behalf of My people Israel … they have divided up My land (Joel 3.2)

The only lasting and perfect solution is to be found in the Bible. The Bible instructs the people of Israel how they should treat foreigners (non-Jews). Old Testament Israel was commanded to love foreigners (Deut 10.19) and to let them live normal lives amongst them:

When a stranger resides with you in your land, you shall do him no wrong … (he) … shall be to you as the native among you, and you shall love him as yourself
(Lev 19.33,34)

This instruction is timeless and applies now and to future Israel in the Millennial Age. During the Millennium the land is divided up amongst the tribes of Israel and the stranger amongst them is also allotted an inheritance:

And they (strangers) shall be to you as the native-born among the sons of Israel; they shall be allotted an inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel
(Ezek 47.22)

So how does this instruction apply to Palestinians today? It seems in 1989 Ariel Sharon wanted to put this injunction into practice:

From my childhood, I have believed Jews and Arabs can live together, and I believe now they should live together. All the rights to this country, to the land of Israel – especially Judea and Samaria – are Jewish … but everyone who lives in the country should have all the rights of the country.
[Ariel Sharon, TIME, April 1989]

Unfortunately, as long as the Arab leadership refuses to recognize Israel and continues to attack her, such cohabitation is impossible. Meanwhile, the Palestinian people suffer unnecessarily.

Going Deeper
The Spiritual Root of All Conflicts with Israel

Yes – there is a root cause, a single principal cause, and it is not political or ideological. To find it we highlight a little biblical history, when the people of Israel (the twelve tribes) rebelled against God. After repeated prophetic warnings, all twelve tribes were eventually scattered throughout the nations (Deut 4.27). Scattering was complete around 586 BC, although a remnant returned to Jerusalem to rebuild the temple, the place of Jesus’ dedication. Here we have a clear answer to our question – the root cause of all conflicts with Israel is related to Jesus:

the dragon (Satan) … persecuted the woman (Israel) who gave birth to the male child (Jesus)
(Rev 12.13)

This clearly correlates Israel’s conflicts/persecutions with the spiritual entity Satan. Why? According to the Bible, Israel is God’s chosen witness and servant in the world, and through Israel came the Messiah, Jesus Christ (Isa 43.10, Gen 22.18, Gal 3.16). So Satan hates God’s witness (Jews) and all true followers of Jesus (Christians).

The Arab Nations

Some see today’s Arab-Israeli, and more locally the Israeli-Palestinian conflict to be rooted in biblical history, namely in Esau and the Amalekites, link. Others say the root-cause of today’s conflict can be traced back to Abraham’s time and to human fallibility. They site disputes between Jacob and Esau, and in particular between Isaac and Ishmael. But the Bible doesn’t stress a long-term conflict between Israelite and Ishmael’s descendants. In fact, God blesses Ishmael and makes his descendants (the Arabs) ‘a great nation’ (Gen 17.19-21)!

So according the the Bible the Arab nations themselves are not the problem. Rather, as we have just seen, the root-cause of the Arab-Israeli/Israeli-Palestinian conflict is actually a battle between spiritual powers, and this manifests itself as a conflict between truth (as revealed in God’s word the Bible) and error (as perpetuated by Satanic deception). So who are the earthly players in this spiritual battle?

Who Wages the Battle between Truth and Error?

The battle is seen in the persecution of Israel. The timeline of Jewish persecution after Christ’s birth is well documented, link, as for example in the 15th century expulsion of Jews from much of Europe, and in the 20th century Nazi holocaust. Today the persecution is carried out via political and media bias against Israel, link, and also through the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In the latter context it is important to distinguish between Arabs and Muslims. Before the arrival of Islam the Arabs were either pagan or followed Judaism or Christianity. But from about 620 AD Islam unified many of the Arabs, using military might (as today) when people wouldn’t convert willingly. Today, most, but not all Arabs are Muslim, whilst only some 18% of Muslims are Arab.

It was only when Islam took over the Arabic nations from the 7th century that the earthly players in the spiritual battle were identified. The truth is God’s truth handed down by the prophets of God’s people, Israel – truth was handed to the Jews. The error is manifested in international politics, the international media and especially in the erroneous ideology of political Islam, link, link, that is, forms of Islam pursuing political objectives. The aggression of political Islam (and therefore Arabic nations) towards the Jews is driven for example by some hadiths (collected sayings of the Prophet Muhammad):

The hour will not be established until you fight with the Jews, and the stone behind which a Jew will be hiding will say: ‘O Muslim! There is a Jew hiding behind me, so kill him’
(Sahih Bukhari 4.52.177)

Politically, in recent years this conflict has been fueled partly by a combination of so-called Zionism (returning Jews with a vision for Zion or Jerusalem), and repeated Arab refusal to recognize Israel, or even a two-state solution. So we must recognize that today’s Arab-Israeli / Israeli-Palestinian conflict is a spiritual battle, and politics, the media, and particularly the ideology of political Islam are vehicles for the practical expression of this battle. Sadly, it is the ideology of militant Islamic leaders that leads to the suffering of the Palestinian people. More …

CONCLUSION: In all the conflicts against Israel it is important to recognize that they are driven by unseen spiritual forces. There is a spiritual war against God’s chosen people, Israel, and aggressive nations and leaders are simply Satan’s pawns.


  1. Very insightful. For many many years, I’ve been searching for holistic context such as this.
    Thank you

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